SwissFirst Project Description

 Diagnosis of epilepsy after a first unprovoked seizure is possible according to the guidelines by the International League Against Epilepsy, if the risk recurrence of a second unprovoked seizure is exceeding 60%. However, this cutoff constitutes only a proxy depending on the patients’ history, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) findings but nevertheless also from the treating neurologists’ individual experience. In a Switzerland-wide observational study, we aim to recruit patients that were admitted to the emergency department with the referral diagnosis of a first and unprovoked seizure. We make use of optimized MRI protocols to identify potential structural epileptogenic lesions, introduce new imaging-based markers of epileptogenecity, and use most recent postprocessing methods as automatic morphometry, spike map analysis, and functional connectivity. With these diagnostic tools, we aim to segregate patients that present with epileptic seizures versus mimicks and non-epileptic seizures and stratify for every finding in MRI and EEG its predictive value for a second unprovoked seizure. These findings shall support neurologists to calculate and not only estimate the seizure recurrence rate in future.